Kim, Jessica and Kathleen M. Fallon. "Making Women Visible: How Gender Quotas Shape Attitudes towards Women in Politics." Politics and Gender. 1-23.
Abstract: Since the 1990s, gender quotas have been celebrated for improving women's equality. Yet their cross-national and longitudinal impact on attitudes towards female politicians and the mechanism through which this process occurs are not well understood. Using multilevel modeling on 87 nations, we examine how different types of quotas, with varied features and levels of strength, shape beliefs about women in politics. We give particular attention to the mechanism of visibility created by quotas in impacting attitudes. Results suggest that unlike quotas with features facilitating low visibility (i.e., weak quotas), those producing high visibility (i.e., robust quotas) significantly impact public approval of women in politics. However, the direction of this effect varies by quota type. Social context also matters. Robust quota effects--both positive and negative--are especially pronounced in democracies but are insignificant in nondemocracies. Limited differences by gender (men versus women) emerge. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.
Kim, Jessica. “The Diffusion of International Women’s Rights Norms to Individual Attitudes: The Differential Roles of World Polity and World Society.” Sociology of Development 6(4): 459-492.
Abstract: Although existing studies of international women's rights norm diffusion demonstrate the importance of international linkages for fostering change, few examine their influence on individual attitudes. Of those that do, none consider how ties to different world cultural domains--world polity vs. world society--impact this process, despite their divergent roots. Whereas world polity via CEDAW facilitates diffusion by holding states accountable, world society via women's international NGOs (WINGOs) appeals to citizens by encouraging activism and awareness. Focusing on trends in developing nations, which remain underexamined but theoretically relevant, I assess the unique effect of each on diffusion to attitudes. I further expand the literature to examine direct and interactive effects of national-level compliance (quotas) on this process. Using a multilevel analysis of World Values Survey data from 31 developing nations, I demonstrate that the duration of CEDAW ratification (world polity) and nationally mandated legislative quotas (national-level compliance) directly facilitate this diffusion, but WINGOs (world society) alone do not. Yet, where quotas exist and global ties are sufficient, WINGOs become significant, and CEDAW's effectiveness increases. These results suggest that world polity and world society are both salient for diffusion to attitudes but should be considered separately and in conjunction with national-level outcomes that moderate their effects.
Kim, Jessica. "Democracy, Aid, and Diffusion: A Normative Approach to the Hybrid Regime." Sociology Compass 14(12): 1-16.
Abstract: Despite its increased prioritization over the past several decades, democracy remains an elusive feat for many nations. This is due, in part, to a recent uptick in hybrid regimes, which possess qualities of both democracy and authoritarianism simultaneously. Among others, one especially salient explanation for hybrid formation is democracy aid itself, which often engenders superficial democratization while masking ongoing authoritarian practices. Still, despite considerable research examining how various factors - including aid - impact hybrid regimes, relatively little headway has been made. This is due primarily to continued disagreement over how to best measure and situate hybrids within the broader democracy literature. In this review, I demonstrate the role sociology can play in addressing this issue while advancing research on democracy, hybrids, and aid in a productive way. I argue that using sociological theories explaining the spread of global norms - such as democracy - to analyze hybrid regimes will facilitate improved understanding of democracy and the factors which shape it across the social sciences.
Kim, Jessica and Kathleen Fallon. “The Political Sociology of Democracy: From Measurement to Rights.” Pp. 538-563 in The New Handbook of Political Sociology edited by T. Janoski, C. de Leon, J. Misra, and I.W. Martin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Abstract: What is the political sociology of democratization? Political scientists and sociologists alike have long theorized about democratic transitions, through their focus has changed significantly over time. Although early models of democracy and democratization were largely based upon the experiences of today's advanced industrialized nations, more recent frameworks offer an updated paradigm to account for the circumstances late democratizers face. Factors that were once considered irrelevant to democratization are now deemed part and parcel of the literature, including issues of power, inequality, history, state capacity, and globalization. A political sociology of democratization, then, is the study of the inherently political process of regime change that employs a sociological analysis of the circumstances and actors that surround and shape transitions, such as those mentioned above. This chapter seeks to provide an overview of the literature that addresses issues key to the political sociology of democratization. We first ground our discussion in the ever-changing international and historical circumstances that world to mold the contextual backdrop for defining democratization. We then move to examine recent discussions within the literature that provide further nuances to measuring democratic citizenship. We conclude by discussing how local and transnational actors work together through social movements and global norm cascades to promote democratization.
Jason J. Jones, Mohammad Ruhul Amin, Jessica Kim, and Steven Skiena. “Stereotypical Gender Associations in Language Have Decreased Over Time.” Sociological Science 7(1): 1-35.
Abstract: Using a corpus of millions of digitized books, we document the presence and trajectory over time of stereotypical gender associations in the written English language from 1800 to 2000. We employ the novel methodology of word embeddings to quantify male gender bias: the tendency to associate a domain with the male gender. We measure male gender bias in four stereotypically gendered domains: career, family, science, and arts. We found that stereotypical gender associations in language have decreased over time but still remain, with career and science terms demonstrating positive male gender bias and family and arts terms demonstrating negative male bias. We also seek evidence of changing associations corresponding to the second shift and find partial support. Traditional gender ideology is latent within the text of published English-language books, yet the magnitude of traditionally gendered associations appears to be decreasing over time.
Fallon, Kathleen, Anna-Liisa Aunio, and Jessica Kim. “Decoupling International Agreements from Domestic Policy: The State and Soft Repression.” Human Rights Quarterly 40(4): 932-961.
Abstract: Despite a dramatic expansion in states' adoption of UN agreements to protect human rights, these efforts often fail to deliver on the full promise of compliance within national contexts. In this paper, we examine the process and mechanisms behind this hypocrisy paradox--when states sign onto yet fail to comply with international agreements. Borrowing from repression and social movement literature, we identify one central process that states draw on to avoid garnering international condemnation while maintaining non-compliance nationally: soft repression. We highlight two mechanisms of soft repression: the mobilization of state resources (working at the micro-level to silence activists) and counterframing techniques (working at the meso-level to stigmatize activists and their goals). Using Ghana as a case study, we demonstrate how proposed domestic violence legislation lost ground when state actors mobilized resources to stall the bill and successfully counterframed the a law as a foreign import and a threat to Ghanaian nationalism and families.